In 1834, Athanase Peltier and Jean Charles, part-time physicists and French watchmakers, found out that at the junction of two metals that are not similar, heating or cooling would be produced.

However, Lenz had shown in 1838 that depending on current flow direction, heat can be generated to melt to ice, or meanwhile on removed at a function such that it freezes water into ice. This means the absorbed or created heat at the junction has a direct proportionality to the electrical current. Now, this proportionality constant is what is known as the Peltier coefficient.


In summary, the concept of thermoelectric refrigeration or Peltier cooling is a refrigeration technology geared towards maximizing efficiency and minimizing energy consumption. This is done by converting electrical energy to a temperature gradient.

The elements involved in this type of cooling technology are characterized by a fast response, compact structure, and refrigeration of integration. This technology is used to manufacture most coolers in the wine cooler uk.

Mode Of Operation

Metals are good heat conductors, and heat naturally flows more in a hot place than in a cold one. However, this is one tendency that doesn’t work in favor of thermoelectric refrigeration. When the Peltier effect drives heat and sucks it to suck back the heat to the cold end, the metal’s conductivity tries to suck back the heat to the other end.

For this reason, the sink has each end attached to it. The heat of the sink on the outside has some metal fins that help conduction waste heat into the air. This fan also helps blow air for a faster cooling process. And this is how the cooling process of thermoelectric refrigeration is done.


Thermoelectric refrigeration is moderately effective. Compared to normal refrigeration, which has up to 40 to 60 percent range. However, normal refrigeration is overpowered, bulky, and heavy, and as such, it isn’t practical for a cooler.

On the other hand, a thermoelectric cooler does not take that much energy and power consumption.  And the fact that it is small contributes to why it takes less energy. This means thermoelectric refrigeration aims at maximizing efficiency while cutting down on power consumption.

Advantages And Disadvantages Of Thermoelectric Refrigeration




1 Easy to control. It only has advantages for units with smaller capacity.
2 Long-lasting. Low C.O.P
3 High reliability.
4 Easy and fewer parts required.
5 Compact design.
7 Zero leakage problem.
8 Interchanging the cooling and heating process can be used to increase the polarity.
9 A simple increase of the power input can allow it to take over-load.
10 It is great for low capacity
11 It is noiseless; it has no moving part.
12 It can operate in any position.
13 The units here are much more flexible than that conventional units.
14 The rate per unit of thermoelectric refrigeration is relatively lower than that of a conventional or normal refrigeration system.

Thermoelectric refrigeration, spurred by the Peltier cooling system, tries to improve results while cutting down on energy and power consumption. Although its efficiency comes in a tad moderation, the model is geared toward being an improved design. However, it is almost always the preferred alternative.